PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


1.1 Form Of Present Perfect Tense


a) Affirmative (Positive) Sentences
Have / Has + V3
HE
SHE
IT
has eaten hamburger

has written the letter

has washed the car
I
YOU
WE
THEY
have eaten hamburger

have written the letter

have washed the car

Present Perfect Tense’in olumlu cümle yapısında, özneden sonra have / has yardımcı fiileri ile V3 (past participle) kullanılır.

• I have finished my work.
• They have moved to a new apartment.
• Jim has eaten lunch.
• I have seen that movie before.
• My father has washed the car.


b) Negative Sentences

HE
SHE
IT

has not eaten hamburger

has not written the letter

has not washed the car
I
YOU
WE
THEY
have not eaten hamburger

have not written the letter

have not washed the car

Present perfect tense’ in olumsuz cümle yapılarında, has / have yardımcı fiilerine not eklenir ve V3 (past participle) kullanılır.

• I have not seen Tom this morning.
• The student’s have not finished their homework.
• Maria has not washed the dishes
• The secretary hasn’t typed the letter yet.
• We haven’t received any messages from Jack this week.


c) Question Sentences

Has he
she
it
eaten hamburger?
written the letter?
washed the car?
Havewe
you
they
eaten hamburger?
written the letter?
washed the car?

Soru cümlelerinde, have / has yardımcı fiilleri özneden önce, V3 özneden sonra kullanılır.

• Have you visited your uncle this week?
• Have you ever eaten Chinese food?
• Has Tim drunk any beer?
• Has she finished her work?
• Have you ever been to Istanbul?

1.2 Present PerfectTense Nerlerde Kullanılır ?

a) Present perfect tense, geçmişte, belirsiz bir zamanda, yapılmış ya da hiç yapılmamış bir eylemi ifade ederken kullanılır. Eylemlerin ne zaman yapıldığı Present Perfect Tense’de önemli değildir ve belirtilmez. Eğer geçmişte belirli bir zaman belirtilmesi gerekiyorsa, ya da eylemin ne zaman yapıldığı belirtilmek isteniyorsa, Simple Past Tense kullanılır.

• They have moved to a new apartment. They moved there last week.
• I have washed the car. (It is clean now!)
• I have never seen such a big building. (All my life)
• I have met Bill’s wife. I met her at a party last night.
• Have you ever eaten at that restaurant yet?
• I think I have seen that girl before.


b) For , since, so far, up till now, untill now ile kullanıldığında present perfect tense geçmişte başlayıp içinde bulunduğumuz ana kadar devem etmekte olan bir eylemden bahsetmek için kullanılır.

• I have been here since 9 o’clock.
• They have been married for 25 years.
• I have has this old car for 10 years.
• She has done great work up to now. I think she will be promoted soon.
• I haven’t seen my uncle since 1990.
• Janet has been very busy with the new project for the last three months.
• I have liked science-fiction films ever since I was a child.


c) The present perfect tense geçmiş ve şimdiki zaman arasında, kesin zamanlar belirtmeksizin, tekrarlanmış olan eylemlerden bahsederken kullanılır.
• I have seen that movie four times.
• I have met many new friends since I came here.
• How many times have you been to France?
• The telephone has rung six times since this morning.
• The scientists have made many important inventions since 1900’s.


d) Bahsedilen zaman dilimi henüz bitmemiş ise present perfect tense kullanılır.

• I haven’t seen Tom this morning. (It’s still this morning)
• My grandfather has written many novels. (He is still alive and writing novels)
• It has rained a lot this year.
• Jane hasn’t called me today.

e) Present perfect tense çok kısa bir süre önce tamamlanmış,geçerliliğini hala koruyan eylemleri ifade etmek için kullanılır.

• I have just eaten a sandwich. ( I am not hungry now)
• Ouch! I’ve cut my finger. It’s bleeding.
• My boss has gone to London. (He is there now)
• The robbers have been put into the prison. (They are in prison now.)


1.3 Using SINCE and FOR
Since bir eylemin geçmişte belirli bir zamanda başlayıp, şu ana kadar devam etmekte olduğunu ifade etmek için kullanılır.Since, bir saat, gün, ay ,yıl ya da geçmişte tamamlanmış bir eylem gibi, geçmiş zaman referansları veren zarf ya da zarf cümlecikleri ile kullanılır.


SINCE + A SPECIFIC POINT IN THE PAST

I have been in this city since +friday.
june
1998
june 29, 1998
the beginning of this semester
yesterday
last week
I got the scholarship
• I have had this old car since 1990.
• Alex has not eaten anything since breakfast.
• Roger and I have known each other since last January.
• I have met so many people since I came to this town last year.
• Jane has worn her new blue jeans only twice since she bought them.


For da present perfect tense ile kullanıldığıda, bir eylemin geçmişte başlayıp, şu ana kadar devam etmekte olduğunu ifade etmek için kullanılır. For ile birlikte two minutes, three hours, four days, five years gibi zamanın uzunluğunu ifade eden yapılar kullanılır.


FOR + A LENGTH OF TIME

I have been in this cityfor + ten minutes.
three hours
ten days
about eight years
several weeks
many years
a long timey
years

• I have had this old car for 10 years.
• Alex has not eaten anything for 8 hours.
• Roger and I have known each other for a year.
• Tom has worked on this project for a long time.
• Jane has not worn her new blue jeans for five months.

1.3 Using ALREADY, YET, JUST, EVER and NEVER

EVER

1. soru cümlelerinde
• Have you ever been to Turkey ?
• Has she ever met John?

2. olumsuz sorularda
• Haven’t they ever been to Turkey?
• Hasn’t she ever met John?

3. olumsuz yapılarda : nothing .......ever , nobody ........ever.
• Nobody has ever climbed to that mountain before.
• Nothing has ever been said to us.


4. “the first time .....” gibi yapılarda

• This is the first time I have ever eaten Thai food.
• It’s the first time I have ever been to England.

5. superlative yapılarda
• Helen is the most beautiful girl I have ever seen.
• Istanbul is the most beautiful city I have ever been to?

kullanılır.


NEVER “daha önce hiç...” anlamında kullanılır. Never olumsuz bir zarf tır ve not ile birlikte kullanılmamalıdır.

DOĞRU: I have never eaten caviar.
DOĞRU: She has never failed any exams.
YALNIŞ: I haven’t never eaten caviar. Or She hasn’t never failed any exams.


ALREADY bir eylemin halihazırda ( beklenenden önce) yapılmış olduğunu ve artık yapılmasının gereksiz olduğunu ifade etmek içim kullanılır.

• You don’t need to go to the post office. I have already posted the letters.
• Don’t take the car to the mechanic.I have already fixed it.
• Have you already finished your homework?
• I have seen that movie already.

YET bir eylemin şu ana kadar henüz yapılmamış olduğunu, ama gelelecekte yapılabileceğini ya da olabileceğini ifade etmek için kullanılır. Yet cümlenin sonunda kullanılır.

• It’s 2:00 pm and I am very hungry. I haven’t eaten lunch yet.
• Have you seen Eric yet?
• Has he arrived yet?

JUST eylemin daha çok kıza bir süre önce tamamlanığını, henüz olduğunu ifade etmek için kullanılır.

• No, thanks. I have just eaten a sandwich.
• They have just gone out.
• Mr. Green has just called you.